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I’m just back from a week in Seattle, where I attended the Living Future Conference, which this year had a theme of resilience and regeneration—a major focus of mine with the Resilient Design Institute. While there I visited what is almost certainly the greenest office building in America if not the world.
The Living Future Conference was created initially to provide a networking and learning venue for designers and builders involved in creating buildings that achieve the Living Building Challenge. Unlike its better known cousin, the LEED Rating System (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) of the U.S. Green Building Council, the Living Building Challenge (LBC) is not a points-based system, but rather a collection of very specific, very challenging requirements.
To achieve LBC certification, buildings must:
Needless to say, achieving LBC certification is very hard. Since the launch of the program seven years ago only a handful of buildings have achieved full certification (4 and counting), and another half-dozen have been recognized for achieving LBC requirements in individual petals. When it comes to larger, multi-story office buildings, the requirements for LBC have seemed almost out of the realm of possibility—at least until now.
The Bullitt Center
The Bullitt Center is a remarkable building that is well on its way to becoming the first sizable commercial office building to achieve LBC certification. The six-story, 52,000 square-foot commercial building, which is owned by (and houses) the Bullitt Foundation, had its grand opening on Earth Day this year (particularly appropriate, since the long-time president of the Bullitt Foundation, Denis Hayes, was the director of the first Earth Day in 1970).
The building was designed by the Miller Hull Partnership in Seattle, with other members of the integrated design team including Point32, PAE Consulting Engineers, Foushee, Luma Lighting Design, 2020 Engineering and Berger Partnership.
Among the building’s features:
Solar-electric system. A rooftop 242-kilowatt (kW) photovoltaic (PV) system is projected to deliver 100% of the building’s electricity needs on an annual basis. Denis Hayes told me, however, that since Seattle isn’t known as one of the sunnier places, this net-zero-energy performance will depend on the weather each year. On a good year, the PV array should have no problem meeting that goal, but some years there is a lot less insolation than average. To get a large enough PV array on the roof to supply electricity for six floors, the PV array cantilevers out over the walls. (Incidentally, Hayes knows what he’s talking about relative to solar, as he served in the late-1970s as director of the Solar Energy Research Institute—now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory—in Golden Colorado.)
Operable windows. Many of the large triple-glazed windows that comprise much of the wall area of the building are operable. Rather than hinging open, the German Schüco mechanisms keep the windows parallel to the wall as they open, which improves the ventilation. The mechanisms are automated but have manual override. To achieve the LBC requirement for local materials, Schüco partnered with a local glazing fabrication company to produce the units, and that company is now going to be a regional producer of high-performance curtainwall systems.
Durability. The building’s timber structure is designed for a 250-year life, and the building envelope (or skin) has a projected life of 50 years before it will need replacement—which can happen without affecting the structure.
As might be expected, the Bullitt Center wasn’t an inexpensive building. At $18.5 million dollars, or $355 per square foot, this is about $50/sf above the average for high-quality, Class-A office buildings in the region, according to the Bullitt Foundation. But it is a demonstration of pushing the envelope and proving that the environmental impacts of buildings can indeed be dramatically reduced.
Office space in the building is being leased at $28–30 per square foot per year, slightly higher than average for Seattle, but tenants get free electricity and water at that price—as long as they keep within their allotted limits.
The Bullit Center is indeed a milestone building—I believe one of the most important commercial buildings of the past 50 years.
Alex is founder of BuildingGreen, Inc. and executive editor of Environmental Building News. In 2012 he founded the Resilient Design Institute. To keep up with Alex’s latest articles and musings, you can sign up for his Twitter feed.
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